API & REST
API or application programming interface contains a set of protocols and definitions. APIs facilitate the development and integration of application software. The API is the assisting mediator between the user and the system. It helps to establish clear communication between the two. APIs help an organization in the sharing of information and resources regulating security, authentication, and control. API does not require caching specifics so the user does not have to worry about the source and process of resource retrieval.
REST is neither a standard nor a protocol but is an architectural constraint set. A client request over the RESTful API transfers the resource state representation to the endpoint or requester. The delivery format can include plain text, JSON, PHP, HTML, Python, or XLT. The language-agnostic JSON is readable by machines and humans. Therefore JSON is popular as a programming language. PHP or Hypertext Preprocessor is an interpreter and a scripting language that was used initially over Linux web servers. The original name for PHP stood as Personal Home Page Tools but now it’s called Hypertext Preprocessor. XLT is a template created from the spreadsheet application in Microsoft office called Microsoft Excel.
MEAN & JSON
MEAN stack application architecture consists of a REST (representational state transfer) API on a single page application. The design is made with MongoDB, Express, and Node.js where the SPA remains in-built to the Angular JS. REST API or RESTful API is an interface for application programming. It follows in line with the REST architectural style constraints and enables RESTful web service interaction.
The Functionality of The MERN Stack
Front End React.js
Server End Express.js and Node.js
The Node.js server has a server-side framework that runs within it known as Express.js. Express.js lives up to its identity as a non-opinionated fast and minimalist Node.js web framework. The Express.js contains efficient models to manage the requests and responses in HTTP and URL routing. The URL routing aims to match the incoming URL with a server activity.
The POST method sends data toward a server to either create or update a resource. The data remain stored within the HTTP request body. The POST requests can neither be bookmarked nor are they cached. The request carries unrestricted data length and does not get collected in the browser history.
The GET Method is a common HTTP method as it requests data from a specific resource. The GET requests can be cached and bookmarked. These requests contain lengthy restrictions and remain within the browser history. The GET requests are used only for requesting data but not to modify them. The request must not be put to use in handling sensitive data.
The XHRs (or XML HTTP Requests) interact with the servers. Users do not have to refresh the entire page to retrieve the URL data. The XHR enables the Web page to update a portion of the page without disrupting the user’s work. XHRs can be used to obtain data, not only of XML but of any kind.
Developers have to use the React.js front end to make POSTs or GETs or XHRs – XML HTTP Requests. Then they empower their applications by connecting to the Express.js functions. The Node.js drivers in MongoDB are used by these functions over callbacks to access and update data with Promises into the MongoDB database.
MongoDB is a document database that stores data within JSON-like documents. It is believed to be more effective and potent in comparison to the traditional row/column model. MongoDB is enriched with JSON documents to ensure effortless activities with data. It not only facilitates dynamic and flexible schemas but also supports values of nested objects and arrays. MongoDB has a powerful relational database that supports in-query joins and it possesses both embedded and reference relationships.
Database Tier in MongoDB
The simplified usability of Node, React and Express deserves an easy-to-use database to help the application store data. The data can include anything from user profiles, uploads, events, content, comments, etc. The MongoDB Database Tier stores the front-end React.js developed JSON documents. These documents are transferred to the Express.js server for processing and validation. Once verified, they are stored for future retrieval in MongoDB.
MERN consists of MongoDB database tier, Express.js, and Node.js application tier, and React.js front-end display tier. With the 3-tier pattern in architecture, MERN is a full-stack solution.
What Are The Reaping Benefits Of The MERN Stack?
There are some advantages in using the MERN stack design that includes –
- A single language facilitates the complete development of every web application from the front end to the back end.
- A vast open-source community develops and manages the MERN stack.
- Ensures swift and fluent development through a supportable MVC (model, view, and controller).
- Through a react-native library, the MERN stack helps in the development of any multiplatform mobile application.
Learn MERN Stack With The Top Free Resources
The Odin Project
Full Stack Open
The not-for-profit community “freeCodeCamp” was founded by Quincy Larson. At present, it is backed up by donations and maintained by an open-source community. freeCodeCamp enables learners to study code through building practical projects. The pupils learn as they read and complete challenges that involve interactive coding. There are multiple sections in which the code is divided. After completing every section, a pupil obtains a certificate. Candidates can streamline their full-stack web development career with the freeCodeCamp.
Mozilla’s MDN Web Docs
Aspirants who wish to use MERN to get into full-stack development can use the Mozilla Developer Network’s learning resources. Although it is not a full-fledged course, yet, candidates can use it as an alternative learning material to learn about the MERN stack. Mozilla’s MDN Web Docs are designed and maintained by an online open-source community.